Complications of malnutrition and how to prevent it


 Complications of malnutrition and how to prevent it

What are the complications of malnutrition? And how can it be controlled? What are the most important methods of prevention? Read the article to find out the answer.

Complications of malnutrition and how to prevent it

The complications of malnutrition include several organs in the body, and this is what we will know in more detail in this article:

Complications of malnutrition

Malnutrition affects the function of somebody organs, which include:

1. Muscle function

A decrease in muscle mass is the first complication of malnutrition that can be noticed, and muscle function begins to decline before its mass decreases.

As the body will depend on the supply of energy through tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue if the nutritional intake is not sufficient to meet the needs of the body.

2. Heart and respiratory functions

Low heart mass is observed as a complication of malnutrition, which leads to a decrease in cardiac perfusions, such as that reaching the kidneys, and this leads to a decrease in kidney function.

Breathing becomes more difficult as a result of decreased diaphragm and breathing functions, which reduces the ability to cough and makes the healing process of respiratory illnesses slower.

3. Digestive system functions

The functions of the digestive system are affected, so this system needs food to maintain the functions of the pancreas and perfusion of the intestine, but the colon may lose its ability to absorb water and nutrients, which may lead to diarrhea that may lead to death in cases of severe malnutrition.

4. The function of the immune system

The function of the immune system is negatively affected, which increases the risk of infection and inflammation, and wound healing becomes more difficult.

5. Fertility

Malnutrition sometimes reduces the level of fertility and may cause some problems, such as diabetes, and strokes in children if the mother becomes malnourished during pregnancy. 

6. Psychological factor

The psychological factor is affected by malnutrition just as the body is affected, as a person can develop depression and a kind of self-neglect or apathy. 

7. Other complications

Other complications can be talked about from malnutrition, such as:

  • Iron deficiency anemia.
  • Skin rash due to zinc deficiency.
  • Neurological problems due to vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults due to vitamin D deficiency.
  • Scurvy due to vitamin C deficiency.
  • Night blindness due to vitamin A deficiency.

Controlling the complications of malnutrition

After talking about the most common complications of malnutrition, we can move on to talking about how to control some of them, as follows:

1. Diarrhea

Diarrhea is one of the most common complications, and it is often controlled by dispensing antibiotics to get rid of the bacteria that may be the cause of this diarrhea. Oral rehydration solution can also be given after each diarrhea, if it is abundant, or just giving water only if it is not. copious. 

2. Infections

Infections such as ear, skin, urinary tract, and lower respiratory tract infections are common, but it is difficult to determine the exact cause, so it is recommended to dispense broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as Ceftriaxone with Cloxacillin.

3. Heat

You should avoid using antipyretics for children in particular, but it is better to use paracetamol at a dose of 10 mg/kg 3 times a day, and it is recommended to avoid immersing clothes in water to reduce the temperature.

How to prevent malnutrition

Malnutrition and its complications can be prevented by eating some types of foods, such as:

  1. Plenty of fruits and vegetables.
  2. Carbohydrates, such as pasta, rice, and bread.
  3. Milk and dairy products in general.
  4. Some sources of protein, such as fish, meat, and eggs.