Gastrointestinal diseases: general information

Gastrointestinal diseases: general information

Gastrointestinal diseases: general information

Many systemic diseases affect the motor performance of the digestive system.

Gastrointestinal diseases listed below are the most common diseases or the most affecting the motor functioning of the digestive system.

1- Rheumatic diseases

Diffuse Systemic Sclerosis is characterized by the growth of connective tissue and scarring (Cicatrization) in many organs.

82% of people with this disease suffer from an infection in the digestive system.

The primary damage is a severe disturbance of esophageal motility, which is represented by a sharp decrease in the functioning of the esophagus and its sphincter, leading to the development of severe gastroesophageal reflux. Later, esophageal strictures and ulcers, and even precancerous changes in the esophageal mucosa (Barrett's esophagus), can appear. In addition, severe disruption of the small intestine, rectal prolapse, and loss of voluntary control of the anal sphincter may occur.

2- malignant tumors

The most common disorder caused by metastases in the gastrointestinal tract, which can have its primary source from the lungs, breasts, ovaries, or from malignant melanoma, is obstruction of the small intestine.

There are other phenomena, as well: Paraneoplastic syndrome, which is mainly embodied in intestinal obstruction, constipation, and disturbances in the swallowing process (Dysphagia).

These disorders result from direct damage to the nerve plexus responsible for the sebaceous system by metastases, from the formation of antibodies against neuronal compounds, or as a result of the secretion of hormones that affect intestinal motility.

3- Endocrine/Metabolic diseases

  • Diabetes (Diabetes): This disease very common for damage the digestive system, all its compounds: problems swallowing (dysphagia), damage the performancemotoresophagus, gastroparesis/stomach paralysisdiabetes Origin (Gastroparesis diabeticorum), disorders work Small intestine and colon: abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea and loss of sphincter control. These disorders occur as a result of injury to the autonomic nervous system (diabetic autonomic neuropathy).
  • Hypothyroidism (Hypothyroidism): mainly characterized by the appearance of constipation, rectal prolapse, and grit in the stool.
  • Hyperthyroidism: It is characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and a sharp drop in weight.
  • Hyperparathyroidism (Hyperparathyroidism): characterized by a high level of calcium in the blood, causing constipation, nausea, and vomiting.

4- Neurological diseases

  • Spinal injuriesGastrointestinal diseases vary according to the severity of the spinal injury. Injury to the cervical vertebrae (Vertebrae cervicales) causes disturbances in gastric emptying. Patients who have paralysis of the four limbs are more likely to be affected than those who have paralysis of the two legs only. Gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, and incontinence (involuntary descent of urine or stool/incontinence) - are common among these patients.
  • Tract diseases extrapyramidal (Extrapyramidal diseases) (Parkinson's disease - Parkinson): The main symptoms of these diseases are: problems in swallowing (dysphagia), hypersalivation (Hypersalivation), difficulties in the stomach, and constipation emptying which is caused by disorders of the colon movement or disorders defecation;
  • Multiple sclerosis: Gastrointestinal disorders are very common among patients with multiple sclerosis. The most common disorders are swallowing problems (dysphagia), constipation, and fecal incontinence (fecal incontinence).
  • Degenerative diseases (atrophy) of the muscles/nerves: Diseases belonging to this group result in disturbances in swallowing, disturbances in the functioning of the esophagus, constipation, and loss of control of the anal sphincter.
  • Trauma and strokeTrauma (injury to the brain) may cause intracranial/intracranial hypertension, which is reflected in vomiting. As for the disorders caused by stroke, most of them are in swallowing (oropharyngeal dysphagia), as well as constipation, which is secondary to physical inactivity.

Gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy

In addition to all of the above, digestive disorders appear in 20% of pregnant women. During pregnancy, changes in the motility of the esophagus, small intestine, bile ducts, and colon appear.

The most common problem is frequent vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy.

In difficult cases, and severe ( vomiting, excessive gestational - Hyperemesis gravidarum) may cause vomiting, frequent disturbances in the balance of fluids and salts in the body. Heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux usually begin in the second trimester of pregnancy. Also, constipation, too, is common during pregnancy. Most disturbances in bowel motility are due to the secretion of hormones.