General information about semen analysis


General information about semen analysis

General information about semen analysis

The semen analysis test examines the quantity and quality of the sperm produced by the man by taking a semen sample and sending it to the laboratory. This test is one of the first tests that are performed on the man to clarify cases of infertility in couples or in couples who find it difficult to conceive.

The things that are checked in a semen examination are:

  • Sample volume.
  • liquefaction time.
  • Sperm count.
  • Sperm safety.
  • Sperm shape.
  • Sperm movement.
  • The level of acidity of the semen.
  • White blood cell count.
  • Sugar level (fructose).

When should the examination be done?

Semen examination is often done in two main ways:

  • first case 

As mentioned earlier, it is to perform a preliminary clarification of infertility in a man, and infertility is the inability to become pregnant despite the passage of at least one year of attempts without using contraceptive methods, given the simplicity and ease of doing this examination, the man is sent to be performed at the same time Which is conducted by the preliminary clarification of the wife.

  • The second case 

What warrants this examination is to check the success of vasectomy in men who want to stop having children.

The at-risk category

There are no special recommendations for semen examination.

Related diseases

Many diseases damage semen or cell production:

  • Orchitis.
  • Varicocele.
  • Klinefelter syndrome (Klinefelter syndrome).
  • Sperm production has been damaged by radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Infectious diseases affect the testicles, such as mumps.
  • Certain hormonal deficiency.

How to perform the examination

The examined man provides a sample of semen, which is usually ejaculated into a prepared sterile cup. This process can be done in one of the special rooms in the clinics designated for this, or at home if the patient’s home is close by, the person can bring the sample to the clinic within no more than an hour.

There are several ways to perform ejaculation:

Prepare for examination

Men should abstain from sex that ends with ejaculation for 2-5 days before the semen examination, to ensure that the largest possible result is extracted from the sample.

In addition, it is recommended not to abstain from sex one to two weeks before the examination, as prolonged abstinence from ejaculation negatively affects the sample and thus the results of the examination. It should be noted that it is forbidden to freeze or warm the sample.

How to perform the examination

The examination is carried out through the following:

  • Self-stimulation and ejaculation into the sterile cup. It is forbidden to use lubricants that can lead to inaccurate results.
  • During sex and ejaculation inside the cup, if a condom is used, a condom must be used that does not contain chemicals such as spermicides and others, and the condom must be washed before using it, and after ejaculation, the condom must be carefully removed and its open end tied and placed in the sample cup With great care to maintain sterilization.

It is not likely that pain or any uncomfortable feeling will appear when the sample is given.

Analysis of the results

The results of the semen examination are often received within one day. The criteria obtained in the investigation of infertility include the following:

  • Sample Size (Volume)

The healthy volume ranges between 2-6 milliliters, infertility may be caused by a small sample size, which can be the result of inflammation or varicose veins in the testicle.

  • liquefaction time

The liquefaction time is the time required for the semen sample to become less viscous. The correct time is 20-30 minutes after the sample is given. A testicular infection may prolong the liquefaction time.

  • Sperm count

The number is normal if there are more than 40 million sperm cells in the sample. It should be noted that the success of the vasectomy is measured by the absence of sperm cells at all.

A low sperm count can indicate a problem with production, for example: following a hormonal problem, or as a result of an infection, inflammation, or chemical injury to the testicle, and a low sperm count does not mean that a man is unable to have children, but it can explain the difficulty in procreation...

  • The shape of the cells (Morphology)

The shape of cells is considered healthy when at least 70% of the cells are of a healthy shape and structure, while abnormal sperm are cells that have two heads, for example, flagella, short flagella, or a round head instead of being oval.

The improper form makes it difficult for the sperm cell to enter the egg. There are many causes for morphological problems in the sperm, for example: following a chemical injury to the sperm cells, infection, or orchitis.

  • Motion

Motility is considered healthy when at least 60% of the sperm are moving properly.

  • acidity level (pH)

It is healthy when it is between 7.2 - 8, and excessively low or high acidity can lead to sperm death or improper motility.

  • White blood cell count

Lecco n sound in the absence of white blood cells or causes of infection in the sample at all, the appearance of white blood cells or pathogens infection indicates the presence of inflammation or infection in the testicles.