What are the functions of the kidneys?


What are the functions of the kidneys?

The kidneys perform many of the necessary functions of the human body, so what are the functions of the kidneys? What are the ways to keep it safe?

What are the functions of the kidneys?

The human body has two kidneys, each one of which is located to the side of the spine, down from the diaphragm, and back in the abdominal cavity. from the right kidney.

What are the functions of the kidneys?

What are the functions of the kidneys?

The renal tubular unit (Nephron) is the basic unit of the kidney so that one kidney contains millions of renal tubes, and it is possible for the kidney to function at only 10% of its functional capacity without you feeling any problems or symptoms, and we will, through the following article, answer an important question related to With this organ, which is, what are the functions of the kidneys?

The main function of the kidney is to maintain balance within the body (homeostasis) by controlling the number of fluids, equalizing salts within the body, and ridding the blood of waste products. Here are the most prominent kidney functions in more detail:

1. Getting rid of waste and fluids more than the body's need

The kidneys get rid of waste products, the most important of which are urea resulting from the breakdown of proteins, and uric acid resulting from the breakdown of nucleic acids. It also works to rid the body of drug residues to prevent their accumulation.

2. Re-absorption of nutrients from the blood

The kidneys work to return some substances to the body, including glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate, water, and some minerals such as sodium, phosphate, potassium, chloride, and magnesium.

3. Maintain pH

The normal level of pH in the blood ranges between 7.38-7.42, and any defect in it leads to an increase in the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, which leads to many problems, and the cooperation between the kidneys and the lungs is done to maintain the normal level of acidity, and the role of the lungs is to control the level of carbon dioxide. The kidneys control the ratio of bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.

4. Regulating the osmolarity of the body

Measure osmolarity water relative to the electrolyte material in the body or the ratio between the fluids and minerals in the body, so that must be maintained within normal levels to prevent dehydration or fluid retention, so the college's role in bringing about changes in the concentration of urine and reabsorption of water, and is organized in the college's response to the hormone inhibitor The diuretic for (ADH) which is secreted by the hypothalamus.

5. Contribute to the regulation of blood pressure 

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a hormonal system that contributes to the regulation of blood pressure so that when blood pressure decreases, the kidneys secrete the enzyme renin,   which converts the angiotensin enzyme found in the liver to angiotensin 1 enzyme.

Angiotensin I enzyme, which later turns into angiotensin II enzyme in the lung, which in turn narrows blood vessels and thus raises blood pressure.

6. Help in the manufacture of red blood cells

The kidneys secrete a hormone called erythropoietin, which is responsible for making red blood cells in the bone marrow.

7. Maintain bone health

The kidneys convert vitamin D  into its active form, which plays a major role in maintaining calcium and phosphate levels, thus aiding in bone growth and maintenance.

Tips to keep your kidneys healthy

After we have answered the question what are the functions of the kidneys? Now it is necessary to know the most important tips that contribute to preserving the kidneys, here are some tips to preserve your kidneys:

  1. Eat a balanced diet by increasing vegetables and fruits and reducing salt so that the amount of salt does not exceed 2300 grams per day, and sugars must also be reduced to reduce the risk of developing diseases of pressure and diabetes that negatively affect the kidneys.
  2. Exercising for half an hour to an hour at least five days a week.
  3. Drink a lot of water to reduce the risk of kidney stones and kidney infections,  so it is recommended to drink 6 cups a day.
  4. Take care when taking vitamins, as excessive intake may negatively affect the kidneys, and do not take herbs without consulting a doctor.
  5. Not drinking alcohol and avoiding smoking.
  6. Do not take excessive medication, such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and antibiotics.
  7. Get enough sleep from 7-8 hours every night. 
  8. Permanent examination by the doctor, especially if there are diseases that may affect the health of the kidneys, such as pressure, diabetes, heart disease, or if there are hereditary kidney diseases in the family.