Your comprehensive guide on types of painkillers


 Your comprehensive guide on types of painkillers

There are many types of analgesics used to relieve pain, as the types of analgesics vary according to their mechanism of action, and the choice of each of them depends on the severity of the pain and the patient's condition, and other factors.
Your comprehensive guide on types of painkillers

Analgesics are used to relieve pain, and analgesics are characterized by relieving pain without losing consciousness or falling asleep.

Types of analgesics

There are many types of analgesics used, including the following:

1. Acetaminophen

Acetaminophen or paracetamol is one of the most common types of analgesics, as it is used to treat many pains, such as headaches, and the majority of non-neuronal pain.

It is available in the form of tablets to be taken four times a day, as one tablet contains a dose of 500 milligrams, and it should be noted that you should not take more than eight tablets per day.

It is worth noting that taking more than the specified dose of Paracetamol may cause many health problems in the body, and may damage the liver.

2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are one of the types of analgesics used to relieve mild to moderate pain, and there are many pain relievers of this type, which vary according to the duration of action, doses, and other factors.

Ibuprofen is a type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory used to treat short-term and non-persistent pain, and ibuprofen is known as short-term analgesia, and naproxen can be used to relieve chronic pain, as it is long-term analgesia.

Examples of other NSAIDs also include:

  • aspirin;
  • Oxaprozin (Oxaprozin).
  • Etodolac (Etodolac).
  • Celecoxib (Celecoxib).
  • Indomethacin
  • Diclofenac (Diclofenac).
  • Piroxicam (Piroxicam).
  • Ketoprofen.

It should be noted that the most important side effects that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may cause are due to their effect on the human digestive system, such as diarrhea, constipation, nausea, and vomiting, and may also increase the risk of stomach ulcers and bleeding

However, these effects are found to a lesser extent with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2) being more selective, which is one of the groups that belong to the NSAIDs.

In addition, this type of painkiller, when used long-term, may cause problems with blood vessels, such as heart attack and stroke.

3. Opioids 

Opioids are used to treat moderate to severe pain or chronic pain. These painkillers work by binding to opioid receptors that are abundant in the brain and spinal cord, as well as elsewhere in the body. 

Here are some examples of opioid analgesics:

  • Codeine.
  • Fentanyl.
  • Hydrocodone (Hydrocodone).
  • Methadone
  • Morphine.
  • Oxycodone.
  • Oxymorphone.

It is worth noting that these painkillers cause addiction resulting from the wrong use.

There are many side effects associated with the use of opioid analgesics, which often disappear with continued use. Excessive use of these analgesics leads to addiction or dependence on the body. The side effects of opioid analgesics include the following:

  • Hallucinations, seizures, and irregular speech.
  • Muscle spasm and stiffness.
  • Low blood pressure, low heart rate.
  • Gastrointestinal disorders of vomiting and nausea.
  • Urinary retention.
  • impotence;
  • Non-allergic itching.